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Neuro


Adult infratentorial mass
Organ: Brain
Pneumonic: MHAMS
Differential Dx:
  • Metastases
  • Hemangioblastoma (no rim enh, enh mural nodule)
  • Astrocytoma
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Subependymoma

  • Adult supratentorial mass
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: MANOL
    Differential Dx:
  • Metastases
  • Astrocytoma
  • Central neurocytoma
  • Oligodendroglioma
  • Lymphoma

  • Pediatric supratentorial neoplasms
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: GPEC
    Differential Dx:
  • Glioma
  • PNET
  • Ependymoma
  • Choroid plexus tumors

  • Pediatric infratentorial neoplasms
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: AMG ERC
    Differential Dx:
  • Astrocytoma pilocytic (mural nod, periph enh)
  • Medulloblastoma (roof of 4th ventricle)
  • Brainstem glioma
  • Ependymoma (floor of 4th ventricle)
  • Atypical rhabdoid teratoid tumor
  • Choroid plexus papilloma

  • Superficial gliomas
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • DNET
  • Ganglioglioma
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma

  • Suprasellar mass, adult
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Adenoma (macroadenoma > 1 cm)
  • Meningioma
  • Aneurysm (giant aneurysm > 2.5 cm)

  • Suprasellar mass, pediatric
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Rathke's cleft cyst
  • Glioma (chiasmatic, hypothalamic)
  • Hypothalamic hamartoma
  • Germinoma
  • LCH

  • Infundibular mass
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: MD GELS
    Differential Dx:
  • Metastases
  • Dermoid
  • Germinoma
  • EG
  • Lymphoma
  • Sarcoma

  • Infundibular cyst
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Rathke cleft cyst

  • Pineal region mass
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: GTP
    Differential Dx:
  • Germinoma
  • Teratoma
  • Pineal parenchymal tumors
  • Pineoblastoma (pediatric)
  • Pineocytoma (adult)
  • Vein of Galen aneurysm

  • Cerebellopontine angle tumors
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: SAME
    Differential Dx:
  • Schwannoma (look for contralateral mass)
  • Arachnoid cyst
  • Meningioma
  • Epidermoid

  • Septum pellucidum region tumors
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Central neurocytoma
  • Subependymoma

  • Lateral ventricle mass, anterior
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Subependymoma
  • Central neurocytoma
  • Subependymal giant cell tumor
  • Ependymoma
  • Astrocytoma

  • Lateral ventricle mass, posterior
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Choroid plexus tumors
  • Meningioma
  • Metastases

  • Third ventricle cyst
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Colloid cyst

  • Fourth ventricle mass
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Ependymoma
  • Subependymoma
  • Choroid plexus tumors

  • Cystic mass with nodule
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: PGP H
    Differential Dx:
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma
  • Ganglioglioma
  • Pleomorphic astrocytoma
  • Hemangioblastoma

  • Ependymal enhancement
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • CMV
  • Lymphoma

  • Parenchymal calcifications, pediatric
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • CMV (periventricular)
  • Toxoplasmosis (diffuse)

  • Leptomeningeal enhancement
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Bacterial
  • Carcinomatosis
  • Lymphoma (nodular)

  • Pachymeningeal enhancement, thick
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: SICI
    Differential Dx:
  • Sarcoid
  • Intracranial hypotension
  • Carcinomatosis
  • Infection

  • Basilar meningitis
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • TB
  • Fungal

  • Basal ganglia abnormality, bilateral
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: NH4
    Differential Dx:
  • NF1 (T1, T2)
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • (T1)
  • Hyperalimentation (T1)
  • Hyper-, hypo-, pseudohypothyroidism
  • Hypoxia, anoxia (T2)

  • Hypoxia
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Acute
  • CO
  • Toxins
  • Enzyme deficiencies (Leigh disease)

  • Caudate atrophy
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Huntington disease

  • Basal ganglia calcifications
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • HIV
  • Calcium-phosphate metabolism

  • Abnormal ventrciles
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Maximum hydrocephalus
  • Hydranencephaly
  • Holoprosencephaly

  • Intraparenchymal hemorrhage
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: AHA MPH
    Differential Dx:
  • AVM
  • HTN hemorrhage (BG, thalamus)
  • Amyloid angiopathy
  • Metastases
  • Primary neoplasms
  • Herpes

  • Diffuse white matter disease, adults
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: HB RT
    Differential Dx:
  • HIV
  • Binswenger
  • Radiation
  • Toluene

  • Diffuse white matter disease, pediatric
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Dysmyelinating disease

  • Discreet white matter lesions
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: HIMA LV
    Differential Dx:
  • HTN
  • Ischemia
  • MS
  • ADEM
  • Lyme disease
  • Vasculitides

  • PRES
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Eclampsia
  • Cyclosporine
  • HUS

  • U fiber T1 hyperintensities
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • PML

  • Fetal hydrocephalus
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: ABCD
    Differential Dx:
  • Aqueductal stenosis
  • Bleed
  • Chiari II
  • Dandy Walker

  • Adult hydrocephalus
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: MBM
    Differential Dx:
  • Meningitis
  • Bleed
  • Mass

  • Multiple masses
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: D MAT
    Differential Dx:
  • Demyelinating lesions
  • Metastases
  • Abscesses
  • TB

  • Copus callosum mass
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • GBM
  • Lymphoma

  • Pontine T2 hyperintensities
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Central pontine myelinolyses
  • Infarct (check basilar artery)

  • Posterior fossa cysts
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • DW malformation
  • Mega cisterna magna
  • Arachnoid cyst

  • Elongated superior cerebellar peduncles (moll
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Vermian agenesis

  • Restricted diffusion
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: I EAB
    Differential Dx:
  • Infarct
  • Epidermoid
  • Abscess
  • Blood when bright on T1
  • Glioma, meningioma, lymphoma

  • Congenital devel. spinal lesions
    Organ: Spine
    Pneumonic: NADEL AC
    Differential Dx:
  • Neurenteric cyst
  • Arachnoid cyst
  • Dermoid/Epidermoid
  • Lipoma
  • AVM
  • Cavernoma

  • Spinal infection/inflammation/trauma
    Organ: Spine
    Pneumonic: SAMMAH
    Differential Dx:
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Arachnoiditis
  • Meningitis
  • Myelitis
  • Abscess
  • Hematoma

  • Tumors
    Organ: Spine
    Pneumonic: EHA MSN Mets Ly
    Differential Dx:
  • Ependymoma
  • Hemangioblastoma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Meningioma
  • Schwannoma
  • Neurofibroma

  • Diffuse intramedulary high T2 signal
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Myelitis (MS, ADEM, lupus)
  • Glioma

  • Central owl eye sign
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Infarct
  • West nile virus

  • Extradural processes
    Organ: Spine
    Pneumonic: DSL
    Differential Dx:
  • Disk disease
  • Synovial cyst
  • Lipomatosis

  • Extradural bone lesions
    Organ: Spine
    Pneumonic: COOMAG
    Differential Dx:
  • Chordoma
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Osteoblastoma
  • Myeloma
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst
  • Giant cell tumor

  • Nerve roots
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Arachnoiditis (clumping)
  • GBS (thickening)

  • Multiple cerebellar and cord lesions
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Hemangioblastomas vHL)
  • Mets

  • Leptomeningeal enhancement
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Meningitis
  • Metastases
  • Lymphoma

  • Gray matter involvement
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Ischemia
  • Viral

  • Multiple cord masses
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • Sarcoid
  • MS
  • Lymphoma
  • Metastases
  • Hemangioblastomas

  • Long tract involvement
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • ALS
  • GBS
  • B12 deficiency

  • Basal ganglia calcifications
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Senescent
  • Phosphate and calcium
  • Post inflammatory
  • HIV in utero
  • Fahr disease

  • Suprasellar cyst
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Ependymal
  • Arachnoid
  • Colloid
  • Epidermoid
  • Cysticercosis
  • Cystic craniopharyngioma

  • Large ventricles
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Alobar holoprosencephaly
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Hydranencephaly

  • Pituitary stalk thickening
    Organ: Pituitary
    Differential Dx:
  • LCH
  • Germinoma
  • Infection
  • Lymphoproliferative disorders
  • Sarcoidosis

  • Cystic mass with enhancing mural nodule
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma
  • Hemangioblastoma
  • Metastases

  • Central hyperintensity
    Organ: Spinal cord
    Differential Dx:
  • Hydromyelia
  • Syringomyelia
  • Syringobulbia

  • Increased T1 signal in basal ganglia
    Organ: Brain
    Pneumonic: NH3
    Differential Dx:
  • NF1
  • Hepatic encephalopathy
  • Hyperalimentation
  • Hyper- Hypo- Pseudohypoparathyroidism

  • Posterior column disease
    Organ: Spine
    Differential Dx:
  • B12 deficiency
  • Nitrous oxide abuse

  • Convexity Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    Organ: Brain
    Differential Dx:
  • Venous thrombosis
  • Dural AVF
  • Amyloid angiopathy
  • Aneurysm